In Kerala, the climate is moderate the entire year. The hilly areas experience cold climate whereas the plains and coastal areas have a warm climate. Kerala gets rain from two monsoons, the south west and the north east. The South West monsoon starts from May-June and continues up to July-August. The north east monsoon starts from August – September and ends till October – November. It is warm and humid climate during the months March to June.
In Kerala about 28.90% of the total land area is covered by forests. The total forest area may be around 11,125.59 sq.km which comes under reserve forests, proposed reserve and the vested forest.
In Kerala there are a large number of wildlife parks and sanctuaries. Kerala is considered to be a green paradise on earth. The dense green forests with a wide variety of animals such as elephants, tigers, deers, leopards etc and water birds provide a great opportunity to the tourists to sight these different creatures.
Kerala spices are very famous throughout the world for several years. Traders from many foreign countries including Arabian countries and Europe came to Kerala for trading spices. It is believed that the trade for spice began around three thousand years back. Pepper is considered as the king of spices, but in Kerala various other spices such as cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger and turmeric are also produced in large quantities.
Kerala is a haven for butterflies. There are about 332 species of butterflies in Kerala. Of them, 37 species are endemic to Western Ghats. The butterflies seen in Kerala vary greatly in colour, habits and size. The largest butterfly of India, the Southern Birdwing has a wingspan of up to 190 mm, while the smallest butterfly of India, the Grass Jewel has a wing span of 15mm. Both of these species occur in Kerala.
In Kerala, there are about 476 different species of birds. These include resident birds as well as migratory birds. The population of the birds is getting reduced due to several factors. Many species of birds are facing extinction.
Among the mammals present in Kerala, the lion tailed macaque, the Nilgiri tahr, the Malabar civet, the small Indian civet, the small Travancore flying squirrel, tiger, elephant, spotted blue whale and sea cow are highly endangered.
Kerala is rich in reptile and amphibian diversity. The total species of reptiles reported in India is 440 of which 187 occur in Kerala. About 130 of these are restricted to the rain forests. They included turtles, snakes, lizards like geckos, skinks and the agamids.
Kerala obtain good rain and has a tropical climate which is very suitable for growing flowering plants. Due to the climate in Kerala, there are many types of flowers found abundantly and naturally. Some flowers are common whereas there are some which are rare.
Kerala is a green state having variety of trees. The trees of Kerala are grown in forests, villages and in cityscapes. Trees are very useful in various ways where it provides food, medicine, timber, firewood etc. Trees also have many medicinal values.
Fruits Giving Plants
Kerala is a green state and there are a wide variety of trees and plants. There are different species of trees and some of them are cultivated for fruits.
Lakes and Rivers
Kerala can be called as the land of water bodies. It has numerous waterfalls and backwaters, 34 lakes with sparkling blue and green waters, and 49 rivers with plenty of tributaries and distributaries. For those who love and admire nature, Kerala is a natural paradise